Love ancient history? Buy a copy of Four Days in September today!

I recently received an update from my publisher Pen & Sword Books regarding my book’s sales – they’re good, but they could be better. My history book Four Days in September: The Battle of Teutoburg, 2nd Edition (2016) has been called THE book concerning the Battle of Teutoburg, also called the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, fought in the year 9 AD between the Romans and the Germanic barbarians. I spent a lot of time overhauling the manuscript to create the 2nd Edition, correcting mistakes and adding in lots of new facts which weren’t available when the original edition came out back in 2013. If you’re interested in ancient Roman history, German history, military history, or just history in general, or you know somebody who is, then buy a copy today! You can purchase it directly from Pen & Sword Books on their website catalogue, or you can get it from other major book retailers.

My book is currently on-sale, so you can get it at a discounted price!


Dryptosaurus: A possible North American megaraptorid? – part 2

In January, I published a post in which I hypothesized that Dryptosaurus, a Late Cretaceous theropod found in Eastern North America, was misidentified. For the longest time, Dryptosaurus was believed to be a tyrannosaur, possibly a rather primitive one. However, with discoveries made within the past two decades, I came to question this taken-for-granted identification.

The megaraptorids are a weird bunch, since nobody knows for certain where exactly they fit. When the type species Megaraptor was found in Argentina by the paleontologist Fernando Novas, it was believed to be a giant dromaeosaur – hence the “raptor” name – measuring at least 25 feet long, which would have made it the largest raptor ever discovered up to that point.

Then in 2010, a study conducted by Benson, Carrano, and Brusatte claimed that the megaraptorids were more related to the allosaurs than the dromaeosaurs. Specifically, the study stated that the megaraptorids were very closely related to Neovenator. It certainly helped when a complete arm was discovered, which showed that the 15-inch long killing claw didn’t come from the foot, but actually came from the hand, similar to Baryonyx.

In 2012, Fernando Novas conducted his own study of Megaraptor and its relatives. He and his colleagues said that while Neovenator and the carcharodontosaurids were close relatives of each other, and that both belonged within the superfamily Allosauroidea, he also stated that Megaraptor and its ilk did not belong in this group. Instead, he stated that the megaraptorids were actually coelurosaurs, and were more closely related to the tyrannosaurs.

In 2014, more evidence to back up a connection between the megaraptorids and the tyrannosaurs came to light when a juvenile Megaraptor was described by J. D. Porfiri, Fernando Novas, and others. Porfiri even placed Eotyrannus, long thought to be a primitive tyrannosaur, as a member of Megaraptora. Because of this, the megaraptorids are thought of by some to be either close relatives of the tyrannosaurs or possibly even an offshoot of the tyrannosaur family.

As a result of learning all of this, I began to wonder if Dryptosaurus was actually a member of Megaraptora, and I published a post saying as much. However, Chase Brownstein, a paleontologist specializing in eastern North American dinosaurs who works at the Stamford Museum, and who I have been in contact with on a fairly regular basis, immediately challenged my hypothesis. He stated that while Dryptosaurus might have had some features that made it visibly look like a megaraptorid, the animal itself was not a member of the megaraptorid family. He put these physical similarities down to convergent evolution – when two different kinds of animals evolve in such a way that they look similar to each other. Convergent evolution is most often brought about by environmental conditions, which infers that both Dryptosaurus and the megaraptorids lived in similar environments, had similar lifestyles, or both.

I recently discovered that my hypothesis was not unique. An internet search showed that at least by 2014, other people had been looking at Drytposaurus with questioning eyes and were wondering if it was actually a megaraptorid. Damn, this happens all the time. Every time that I think I’ve come up with a new idea, it turns out that some has already thought of it before. Oh well.

While my assessment of Dryptosaurus as a megaraptorid may or may not be correct – we’ll never know the real answer until more Dryptosaurus specimens are found and analyzed – I feel that my drawing of Dryptosaurus is nevertheless accurate. A phylogenic analysis conducted in 2013 placed Dryptosaurus between Raptorex (which, according to some, is actually a misidentified juvenile Tarbosaurus) and Alectrosaurus. Both Raptorex and Alectrosaurus had similarly-shaped skulls, so I gave my rendition of Dryptosaurus a skull that was very similar to these two species. I gave it the massive thumb claws that are seen on the holotype specimen. I also gave my creation a mane of fibrous feathers, since many primitive three-fingered tyrannosaurs are known to have had feathers covering some or most of their bodies.

Figure 1. Skull of Alectrosaurus. Illustration by Tracy Ford (I think).


Figure 2. Skeleton of Raptorex. Photo by Kumiko (September 24, 2011).



Figure 3. My own drawing of Dryptosaurus.


Review of the 2016 Thunderbird Mid-Summer Pow Wow at the Queens County Farm Museum

Hello all. A week ago, I attended the Thunderbird Mid-Summer Pow Wow which takes place at the end of July at the Queens County Farm Museum. I have been coming to this place, and the associated Green Meadows Farm Petting Zoo (which I originally thought was part of the QCFM, but later learned that it’s an entirely separate organization) ever since I was in pre-school. Chances are if you went to pre-school or elementary school here in Queens, New York, that around October you came to this place for some pumpkin picking. I enjoy coming here for the special events that they host, and among them is the yearly gathering of the Indian tribes from across the Americas to represent and honor their heritage – from Canada to Ecuador, and everywhere in between.

As a historian specializing in tribal cultures from ancient times to modern times, I feel that behooves me to come to events like this as often as I can in order to keep up my credibility as a historian and quasi-anthropologist. Also, I just love coming here purely for it’s own sake – I greatly enjoy coming to this place, I enjoy the “rendezvous” like atmosphere, and of course, I love the music and the dances. The food isn’t bad either!

The pow wow was a three-day event, and I arrived on saturday July 30. The weather was forecasted to be pretty bad that weekend, and on Friday, the first day of the festivities, it poured. When I arrived on Saturday, the sky was gray and heavy, and there were warnings that there would be occassional showers throughout the day.

Although it’s called a “museum” the QCFM is working farm where they grow crops and raise livestock. In fact, it is the last fully-operational farm left in all of Queens County. It’s a large place, and the pow wow events were confined to the front portion of the farm where the gate and most of the buildings are. The center and rear of the farm were pretty isolated, aside from a few farm workers and some families looking at the animals in their pens.

I enjoy walking amidst the gardens and crop fields. As I’ve said in previous posts on this blog, although I’ve lived my whole life in the city, I’ve always been more of a country person at heart, and this place allows me a certain amount of escapism.

The first building that you see when you walk in is the Adriance Farmhouse.


Nearby are other associated buildings which are used for a variety of purposes.


In the nearby gardens, they grow many of the herbs and vegetables that they sell at the market stand, which is located outside of the giftshop.


In terms of livestock, they have a refreshing variety, including pigs, sheep, goats, chickens, cows, horses, and even alpacas!


Just beyond the gardens is the cornfield. they grow the corn in the form of a maze which is then enjoyed by the children during autumn. When I was there, the corn stalks were five and a half feet high, up to my chin.


Other gardens stretch all the way to the back of the farm property. This is a rather large expanse of open area. On one side are grape vines, some open grass, and then more vegetable and herb gardens. The QCFM used to make and sell its own wine (the 2006 Merlot was especially good), but they stopped doing this a few years back. The following three photos are my attempt at a wide pan shot, which unfortunately my camera can’t do, so I had to take three separate pictures.


The object that you see in the last picture is a greenhouse. There are several of these small greenhouses, constructed from a frame and covered with thin plastic sheeting, dotted all over the farm. Here is a better picture of it.


You’re probably expecting me to post pictures of the pow wow celebrations, but I deliberately took NO pictures of this. The dancers, musicians, and story-tellers that were present here have strong feelings about having their pictures being taken. Remember, these people are not tourist attractions. They are people deserving of respect, and I felt that it would not be appropriate to be snapping pictures of people when they don’t want to be photographed. Besides, in this age when everyone who attends a concert records it on their smartphone rather than sitting back and enjoying the show, I am adamant in not allowing technology to get in the way of an immersive sensory experience. So, no photos. Don’t like that? Tough.

Tyrannosaurus rex with scales

Tyrannosaurus full body with scales

Behold my masterpiece.

This is the fifth T. rex drawing that I’ve posted to this blog, and it is the hardest drawing that I have ever had to make. Every individual scale was done by hand, one by one. This drawing took me months to finish. To give you a better idea about the utterly insane amount of detail, the actual drawing of the dinosaur itself from the tip of its nose to the tip of its tail measures precisely 24 inches. Most of the drawn scales measure at only one millimeter in diameter.

As you can see, it is done in the same pose as my previous two full-body T. rex drawings, but I made some noteable improvements:

  1. Slightly changing the shape of the skull – my original one looked a little too much like Tarbosaurus rather than Tyrannosaurus.
  2. Not making the face as shrink-wrapped as the original head drawing was.
  3. Making the neck more detailed and fuller.
  4. Changing the position of the hands to be more anatomically corect.
  5. Making its body fatter – the original was too skinny.
  6. Making the tail thicker and fatter to properly counter-balace the now-heavier front half of the body.
  7. Changing the shape of the feet.

This drawing was made on several sheets of 8.5 x 11 printer paper, with just an ordinary No. 2 pencil…and a whole lot of patience.

Happy three year anniversary for “Dinosaurs and Barbarians”!

Hello all,

Three years ago today, I started this blog. Things have gone very well so far, and I’m hopeful that things will get even better.


Requests for articles and artwork

A while back, I asked you, the reader, if you had any requests for articles and artwork that you would like me to do, but I received no reply. However, I recently looked at the search terms that come up on this blog’s administration page. Most of the terms concern subjects that I’ve already written about or illustrated, but there were a few others on subjects that I haven’t touched yet, or have only just alluded to. Terms which showed up frequently were (in order of frequency):

  • Alamosaurus (12)
  • Caenagnathus / Chirostenotes (9)
  • Pterosaurs (8)
  • Liopleurodon (7)
  • Mosasaurs (6)
  • Dakotaraptor (5)
  • Velociraptor (in color) (5)
  • Suchomimus (4)
  • Carnotaurus (3)
  • Oviraptor (3)


Others caught my interest as potential future art or writing projects, including:

  • Abelisaur
  • Allosaurus courting
  • Allosaurus head
  • Allosaurus walking
  • Australovenator
  • Deinonychus
  • Dinosaurs of Texas
  • Dracorex head
  • Elasmosaurus
  • Iguanodon head
  • Neovenator
  • Pachycephalosaurus keeping shelter
  • Styracosaurus
  • Triceratops eating
  • Tyrannosaurus juvenile
  • Lacrimal horns on dinosaurs
  • Mesozoic turtles
  • What dinosaurs lived on Long Island?

The last three sound like interesting research projects. Anyway, based upon what I have seen, I think that I can gauge what you would like me to do. So, I’m treating these statistics pretty much like a to-do schedule. Right now, I’m really hammering on a super-detailed drawing of a full-body T. rex, which I hope to have finished within one or two weeks, and then put up here for you to admire and comment on. After that, I’ll focus on the items on these two lists – the “frequency list” will take priority. I’m happy to say that some of these terms are on things that I’ve had in the back of my mind for a while, so this will give me the impetus to do them. Take care everybody, and keep your pencils sharp.

Captain Louis Antoine de Bougainville

Louis Antoine de Bougainville

Louis Antoine de Bougainville (November 12, 1729 – August 31, 1811) was a French scholar, military officer, and explorer. He was a brilliant mathematician, gained fame for himself fighting in the French and Indian War, he became the first Frenchman to circumnavigate the globe, and he conducted an extensive exploration of the South Pacific. Bougainville Island, where a ferocious battle took place during World War II, is named after him.

This is a drawing as he would have looked in his 20s during his service in the French and Indian War as a captain in the French Army and as the aide-de-camp to Gen. Louis Joseph, Marquis de Montcalm. Made using a combination of No.2 pencil, colored pencils, and markers. The portrait that you see is based upon several existing portraits of him from later in life (none of them being full portraits), especially his distinctive blue coat with the gold Celtic-style braiding.

For more info, read the following: